Numerical solution of the two-dimensional wave equation requires mapping from a physical domain without boundaries to a computational domain with artificial boundaries. For realistic solutions, the artificial boundaries should cause waves to pass directly through and thus mimic total absorption of energy. An artificial boundary which propagates waves in one direction only is derived from approximations to the one-way wave equation and is commonly called an absorbing boundary. Here we investigate order 2 absorbing boundary conditions which include the standard paraxial approximation.Absorption properties are compared analytically and numerically. Our numerical results confirm that the L infinity or Chebychev-Pade approximations are best for wide-angle absorption and that the Chebychev or least-squares approximations are best for uniform absorption over a wide range of incident angles. Our results also demonstrate, however, that the boundary conditions are stable for varying ranges of Courant number (ratio of time step to grid size). We prove that there is a stability barrier on the Courant number specified by the coefficients of the boundary conditions. Thus, proving stability of the interior scheme is not sufficient. Furthermore, waves may radiate spontaneously from the boundary, causing instability, even if the stability bound on the Courant number is satisfied. Consequently, the Chebychev and least-squares conditions may be preferred for wide-angle absorption also.

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