Abstract

Early-time and late-time apparent resistivity approximations have been widely used for interpretation of long-offset transient electromagnetic (LOTEM) measurements because it is difficult to find a single apparent resistivity over the whole time range. From a physical point of view, Dr. C. H. Stoyer defined an apparent resistivity for the whole time range. However, there are two problems which hinder its use: one is that there is no explicit formula to calculate the apparent resistivity, and the other is that the apparent resistivity has no single solution.A careful study of the two problems shows that a numerical method can be used to calculate a single apparent resistivity. A formula for the maximum receiver voltage over a uniform earth, when compared with the receiver voltage for a layered earth, leads to the conclusion that, in some cases, a layered earth can produce a larger voltage than any uniform earth can produce. Therefore, our apparent resistivity definition cannot be applied to those cases. In some other cases, the two possible solutions from our definition do not merge, so that neither of them is meaningful for the whole time range.

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