Several techniques for determining the location, geometry, and strength of a source are based on a knowledge of the magnetic gradients generated by that source. Hood (1965), Bhattacharyya (1966), and Rao et al. (1981) detailed three of these gradient methods. For many years, geophysicists have used the two-dimensional (2-D) Hilbert transform to approximate the vertical gradient from measurements of the horizontal gradient in the magnetic-field intensity (Nabighian, 1972; Stanley and Green, 1976; Stanley, 1977; Mohan et al., 1982). This technique is of limited applicability because of the implicit assumption that the source is a linear, 2-D body oriented at right angles to the profile direction.

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