Abstract

The ultrasonic compressional (V p ) and shear (V s ) velocities and first-arrival peak amplitude (A p ) were measured as functions of differential pressure to 50 MPa and to a state of saturation on 75 different sandstone samples, with porosities phi ranging from 2 to 30 percent and volume clay content C ranging from 0 to 50 percent, respectively. Both V p and V s were found to correlate linearly with porosity and clay content in shaly sandstones. At confining pressure of 40 MPa and pore pressure of 1.0 MPa, the best least-squares fits to the velocity data areEquationandEquationDeviations from these equations are less than 3 percent and 5 percent for V p and V s , respectively.The velocities of clean sandstones are significantly higher than those predicted by the above linear fits (about 7 percent for V p and 11 percent for V s ), which indicates that a very small amount of clay (1 or a few percent of volume fraction) significantly reduces the elastic moduli of sandstones.For shaly sandstones we conclude that, to first order, more sensitive to the porosity and clay content than is V p . Consequently, velocity ratios V p /V s and their differences between fully saturated (s) and dry (d) samples also show clear correlation with the clay content and porosity.For shaly sandstones we conclude that, to first order, clay content is the next most important parameter to porosity in reducing velocities, with an effect which is about 0.31 for V p to 0.38 for V s that of the effect of porosity.

This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

First Page Preview

First page PDF preview
You do not currently have access to this article.