Abstract

We used the ultrasonic transmission method to measure P-, SH-, and SV-wave velocities for Chelmsford granite, Chicopee shale, and Berea sandstone in different directions up to 1 000 bars confining pressure. The velocity measurements indicate these three rocks are elastically anisotropic. The stiffness constants, dynamic Young's moduli, dynamic Poisson's ratios, and dynamic bulk moduli of the three rocks were also calculated. The elastic constants, together with velocity measurements, suggest that: (1) elastic anisotropy is due to the combined effects of pores or cracks and mineral grain orientation, and (2) elastic anisotropy decreases with increasing confining pressure. The residual anisotropy at higher confining pressure is due to mineral grain orientation.

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