Abstract

The need to extract more information about the subsurface from geophysical and petrophysical measurements has led to a great interest in the study of the effect of rock and fluid properties on geophysical and petrophysical measurements. Rock physics research in the last few years has been concerned with studying the effect of lithology, fluids, pore geometry, and fractures on velocity; the mechanisms of attenuation of seismic waves; the effect of anisotropy; and the electrical and dielectric properties of rocks. Understanding the interrelationships between rock properties and their expression in geophysical and petrophysical data is necessary to integrate geophysical, petrophysical, and engineering data for the enhanced exploration and characterization of petroleum reservoirs.The use of amplitude offsets, S-wave seismic data, and full-waveform sonic data will help in the discrimination of lithology. The effect of in-situ temperatures and pressures must be taken into account, especially in fractured and unconsolidated reservoirs. Fluids have a strong effect on seismic velocities, through their compressibility, density, and chemical effects on grain and clay surfaces. S-wave measurements should help in bright spot analysis for gas reservoirs, but theoretical considerations still show that a deep, consolidated reservoir will not have any appreciable impedance contrast due to gas.The attenuation of seismic waves has received a great deal of attention recently. The idea that Q is independent of frequency has been challenged by experimental and theoretical findings of large peaks in attenuation in the low kHz and hundreds of kHz regions. The attenuation is thought to be due to fluid-flow mechanisms and theories suggest that there may be large attenuation due to small amounts of gas in the pore space even at seismic frequencies. Models of the effect of pores, cracks, and fractures on seismic velocity have also been studied. The thin-crack velocity models appear to be better suited for representing fractures than pores. The anisotropy of seismic waves, especially the splitting of polarized S-waves, may be diagnostic of sets of oriented fractures in the crust.The electrical properties of rocks are strongly dependent upon the frequency of the energy and logging is presently being done at various frequencies. The effects of frequency, fluid salinity, clays, and pore-grain geometry on electrical properties have been studied. Models of porous media have been used extensively to study the electrical and elastic properties of rocks. There has been great interest in extracting geometrical parameters about the rock and pore space directly from microscopic observation. Other models have focused on modeling several different properties to find relationships between rock properties.

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