A wide-band time-domain EM system, known as UTEM, which uses a large fixed transmitter and a moving receiver has been developed and used extensively in a variety of geologic environments. The essential characteristics that distinguish it from other systems are that its system function closely approximates a step-function response measurement and that it can measure both electric and magnetic fields. Measurement of step rather than impulse response simplifies interpretation of data amplitudes, and improves the detection of good conductors in the presence of poorer ones. Measurement of electric fields provides information about lateral conductivity contrasts somewhat similar to that obtained by the gradient array resistivity method.

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