Field seismograms resulting from concentrated sources provide the starting point for all acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation techniques in seismic exploration. As pointed out recently by Bortfeld (1982), Hubral (1983), and Krey (1983), certain benefits with respect to improving (a) pulse deconvolution, (b) poststack migration, and in particular (c) the estimation of interface reflection coefficients, can however be gained by transmitting so-called normal waves to (generally curved) reflectors in a laterally inhomogeneous earth.

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