The formal electromagnetic coupling solution for a dipole-dipole electrode array configuration has been modified to include cultural coupling in a uniform conducting half-space. Solutions are obtained for survey lines oriented at an arbitrary position and angle with respect to a cylindrical structure. The convergence properties of the general mutual impedance solution are analyzed using a low-frequency approximation which is useful in predicting cultural anomalies in the frequency range of spectral IP surveys as long as all significant dimensions are less than one skin depth. Both interfacial polarization and induced currents in the cylindrical conductor are considered in examining the behavior of the overall spectrum as seen by an external observer. Spectral responses for dipole-dipole arrays oriented perpendicular and parallel to the buried conductor show that the phase shift is the most diagnostic parameter for pipe depth and survey data distortion. The results also show that field survey procedures can be devised to minimize such interference effects when the pipe position is known.

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