A particularly simple method of calculating sound scatter from planar distributions of small bodies was devised some years ago by Biot (1968) for a type of rough surface model pioneered by Twersky (1957) consisting essentially of spheroidal or hemispheroidal bumps on a rigid plane. The Biot theory has been generalized recently by Tolstoy (1979, 1980, 1981, 1982a, b) to scatterers of arbitrary shapes and impedance contrasts at interfaces between arbitrary fluids. It applies to the case  
where k is the wavenumber, a the mean height of the scatterers, and h the spacing between their centers (Figure 1). The theory deals with the coherent part of the multiple scatter and predicts phenomena not adequately described by conventional stochastic models of rough surface scattering of acoustic waves, whose usefulness is restricted by the assumption that the slopes of the irregularities are everywhere small (Bass and Fuks, 1979; Wenzel, 1974; Kuperman, 1975).
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