The electric field induced within four layered models by a repetitive current wave form in a circular loop transmitter is presented along with the resulting magnetic fields observed on the surface. The behavior of the induced electric field as a function of time explains the observed sign reversal of the vertical magnetic field on the surface. In addition, the differences between magnetic field responses for different models are explained by the behavior of the induced electric fields. The pattern of the induced electric field is shown to be that of a single “smoke ring,” as described by Nabighian (1979), which is distorted by layering but which remains a single ring system rather than forming separate smoke rings in each layer.

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