Seismic surveys on land are frequently conducted along nonlinear survey lines. Familiar examples include crooked lines controlled by existing road networks or by surface typography, lines that are otherwise linear but along which shotpoints occasionally must be offset laterally, and intentionally designed three-dimensional (3-D) or broad-line surveys. Departures from linear profiles introduce an element of complexity--crossdip--into the problem of estimating residual near-surface reflection static time corrections (statics). Crossdip is the component of dip normal to the local profile direction. We have incorporated the effect of crossdip into the system of simultaneous equations that model residual static anomalies. The observed traveltimes of all reflections selected for analysis are represented as linear combinations of source and receiver static anomalies, structural shapes, residual normal moveouts, and crossdip terms. The static time components are taken to be surface-consistent and independent of reflecting horizon, whereas the other solution parameters are subsurface-consistent and pertain to specific horizons.Unfortunately, the inclusion of crossdip in the equations increases the degree of nonuniqueness of residual statics solutions. Its inclusion, however, is a necessity wherever horizons having differing crossdips are analyzed simultaneously. Such simultaneous analysis often is the best means for upgrading the reliability of the crosscorrelation estimates (i.e., the traveltime observations) upon which all statics are based.Synthetic-data examples demonstrate the degree to which crossdip estimates and statics estimates can be separated from one another. Although estimates of crossdips are a useful by-product, the accuracy of the static corrections is considered of prime importance. When critical crossdip terms are ignored in a statics solution, the quality of the common-depth-point (CDP) stacks suffer, as shown in comparison processings of field sections. Moreover, crossdip estimates from 3-D or broad-line surveys are questionable if crossdip and static corrections are not considered in a unified solution.

This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

First Page Preview

First page PDF preview
You do not currently have access to this article.