In gamma-ray logging for radioactive source material, the logging system response depends on a variety of internal and external influences, such as the type of material, disequilibrium, source geometry, logging medium, and system components. Of paramount importance is the constant of proportionality that relates the system response in counts per second (cps) to a particular grade of material. This constant has been defined by Broding and Rummerfield (1955) and Scott et al (1961) and is usually called the "K-factor". The K-factor for any particular system cannot be directly calculated from knowledge of the system's components and assemblage, hence it must be determined empirically from measurements made in a controlled situation.

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