Dipole-dipole induced-polarization measurements are commonly presented as pseudosections, but results using different dipole lengths cannot be combined into a single pseudosection. By considering the theoretical results for simple earth models, a unique set of relative depth coefficients is empirically derived, such that measurements with different array parameters will 'mesh' smoothly into a combined pseudosection. Application of these coefficients to a number of theoretical and field cases shows that they give reasonable results when applied to more complicated models.The empirical coefficients are compared with Roy's theory of 'depth of investigation characteristic,' and support that theory, if a modified definition of 'effective depth' is accepted. This leads to an absolute depth scale for the modified pseudosection. It is shown that rough estimates of the depth to the top of an anomalous body can be made directly on the pseudosection, at true vertical scale.This definition of effective depth is applied to other electrode arrays. It is shown, by examples, that the resulting pseudosections give consistent estimates of depth to top, within the characteristic anomaly patterns of each array. The effective depths for various arrays are compared; the results agree with the traditional applications of each array.