Abstract

The gravity tower vertical gradient has been applied to the solution of a number of important geologic, mining, and engineering problems, particularly to the search for and investigation of geologic structures and the detection of caverns and old mine workings.The effective application of the method depends upon recognizing the difference between the theoretical gravity vertical gradient V zz and the gradient W zz measured by means of a tower and gravimeter. The former is a derivative of the function g, the latter its differential quotient. Consequently, the differences between V zz and W zz in the same point may attain high values. Thus, e.g., for a sphere with a radius of 1 m, a density of 2.0 gm/cc and the depth of occurrence of its center equaling 1.2 m, the difference of the theoretical absolute amplitudes AV zz - AW zz = 465.4 Eotvos units. Application of the method of the gravity tower vertical gradient on an industrial scale was possible due to the introduction of (1) a new design of the measuring tower, (2) detailed analysis of errors, and (3) a new method of calculating the topographic correction of the gravity vertical gradient.The paper sums up the results of five years of research work and industrial applications. During that period several thousand measurements of the gravity vertical gradient were made.

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