Abstract

An electromagnetic pulse radar has been developed for investigation of subsurface geology and man-made targets. The radar uses separate broadband dipole-type antennas for transmission and reception. The antennas are well matched to the soil or rock surface. An orthogonal orientation of the antennas on the medium surface effectively decouples them and also prevents reflections from the air-medium interface or any horizontal stratification from being seen. Two versions of the radar are used: small 6-ft dipoles with a shock-type (250 picosec) pulse for shallow soundings and 24-ft dipoles with a 45 nanosec pulse for deeper soundings. Signatures of faults, joints, cavities, and lithologic contrasts in soft rock have been obtained with the radar, and these results are presented.A sampling oscilloscope acts as a receiver for the radar, and the target signatures are isolated portions of the time record whose time delays agree with the physical geometry and measured pulse velocities for the medium. For a large void at a depth of 20 ft in limestone, a frequency domain signature is also given to illustrate the potential of using both temporal and spectral signatures. Signatures of an exposed fault in a dolomite quarry are used via mapping measurements to delineate the direction of a minor fault. Signatures of two lithologic contrasts at depths of 40 ft in the dolomite are given. The signatures of a drift coal mine tunnel as measured from a hill 11 to 26 ft above the tunnel are shown. Unique features of the radar are enumerated and present capabilities are summarized.

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