Early difficulties encountered relative to measuring the wave form of the detected potential by means of a predistorted opposing wave have been eliminated by introducing several novelties. These comprise a new mixing circuit, novel means for synchronizing the opposing wave with the detected wave, and simplified predistorting networks. A calibration scheme is outlined to maintain the detection apparatus at a constant level of performance.A simplified method of measuring the detected wave form obviating the synthetic opposing wave, useful in certain areas, is shown. Essentially it comprises subjecting the detected wave to the further distorting action of a simple circuit, the adjustment of which produces a standard wave shape consisting of straight lines in the oscilloscope. The adjustment of this circuit necessary to bring the wave shape to this standard value constitutes the measure of the time constant of the detected wave.

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