A mathematical basis for the application of power spectrum analysis to aeromagnetic map interpretation is developed. An ensemble of blocks of varying depth, width, thickness, and magnetization is considered as a statistical model. With the use of the fundamental postulate of statistical mechanics, a formula which can be used to analyze the power spectrum of an aeromagnetic map is developed. The influences of horizontal size, depth, thickness, and depth extent of the blocks on the shape of the power spectrum are assessed. Examples which include power spectra of maps from Canada and Central America demonstrate the application of the approach. In the cases studied a double ensemble of blocks appears to best explain the observed power spectrum characteristics.