Insofar as the deconvolution of marine seismic records is applied to the elimination of the effects of near-surface layers, two methods are available to improve operator efficiency. One method is the iterative determination of a gapped deconvolution operator using a generalization of the three-point 'Backus Filter.' Another method is the derivation, by division in the z-transform domain, of the operator that 'removes' the surface and near-surface reflectors from the section.

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