The ultrasonic reflection-diffraction complexes from simple rectangular configurations are compared for various two-dimensional seismic models. These models represent simple faults and faults with sharp folds for two- and three-layer cases. In particular, the model with cavity and models with extrusions (with square corners) represent simple faults in two- and three-layer cases, respectively. Similarly the model with cavity and models with recesses (with curved corners) correspond to a sharp fold in the vicinity of the fault in two- and three-layer cases.Masking of the fault plane by overlapping of diffraction upon reflection events is shown to be much more prominent for the simple fault with sharp fold than for a simple fault in both the two- and three-layer cases.For the three-layer cases, models employing recesses and extrusions have vertical dimensions less than the wavelength of the transmitted pulse; hence, waveforms for these models are more complicated due to composition of wavelets from the first interface with those from the second interface.Differences between the models were explained by synthetic waveforms derived using superposition of diffraction wavelets for the two-layer cases (cavity models), and overlapping wavelets for the three-layer cases (models with recesses and extrusions).

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