Techniques have been developed for the usefulness of the expanding reflection profile whose basic elements were described by Dix in 1955. Procedures have been established which make the shooting and interpretation of these expanding reflection spreads simpler and more reliable. Special presentations have been developed for the displaying of these profiles on record sections, and nonlinear paper has been designed for plotting the time-squared versus distance-squared graphs. The expanding spread is a valuable seismic tool and has numerous applications. It may be used for identification of reflections and multiples. From the true reflections, calculations can be made to present the normal velocity survey information, i.e., time, average velocity, and interval velocity versus depth. Among other uses is the determination of the normal moveout curve. Various types of presentations are used to display expanding spreads in record section form. Also, various noise and multiple problems are exhibited.

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