Abstract

Difficulties occur in obtaining accurate two-receiver velocity logs in formations sensitive either to damage by exposure to drilling mud or to mechanical stress relief. Some shales are so altered by the drilling operation that their elastic properties are modified. Vertical velocity measured immediately adjacent the boreface is lower than if it were measured at a greater radial distance from the bore. These damaged shales require relatively deep penetration by the acoustic signal; consequently, the transmitter-to-first-receiver spacing in a two-receiver velocity logging system should be long enough to refract the sound waves through virgin formation. Experiments in one predominantly shaly section show a difference of almost 10 percent between times measured using transmitter-to-first-receiver spacing of 4.3 ft compared to 8.8 ft. A limited amount of field data suggest that sodium montmorillonite is the clay type most sensitive to hydration and swelling. Studies of areal prevalence of the shale damage problem are incomplete.

First Page Preview

First page PDF preview
You do not currently have access to this article.