Abstract

In the Alberta foothills the most valuable use of the refraction seismograph is for the definition of overthrust faulting in the Mississippian limestone which is overlain by a faulted, overthrust, and overturned Cretaceous section. Normally, two refracted arrivals are recorded with characteristic interval velocities of 14,000 ft/sec and 21,000 ft/sec, the former arising from an unknown Cretaceous marker, and the latter from the Mississippian. In contrast to a shot-range of 65,000 ft required to record the refracted arrival from the Mississippian at a depth of 10,000 ft as the first event, a range of 20,000 ft permits recording it as the later event, with consequent improvement in the quality and reliability of the data, reduces the amount of surveying required together with smaller dynamite charges, and improves radio communication. A geophone spread of 6,300 ft with single geophones at 300 ft intervals recorded on 22 traces is recommended.Both in-line and broadside refraction with the Mississippian arrival recorded as the later event have been used successfully with certain advantages to each method. The former permits continuous determination of the interval velocity of the refracted events as well as providing two-way control; the latter is considerably faster, and often faulting may be observed directly on the seismograms without reduction of the data. Specimen seismograms are included to illustrate the two methods.Field operating conditions pertaining to survey tolerances, shot formation, size of dynamite charges, the weathering shot as a polarity check, filtering, geophone frequency, and costs are discussed.

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