During 1957-58 a dozen nations will establish thirty-five geophysical stations in Antarctica. Thus, this continent, whose area is larger than that of the United States and Mexico combined, will be the subject of concentrated, coordinated geophysical exploration, to a degree not dreamed possible a few years ago. For the first time geophysical stations will be established away from the coasts, deep in the interior of the continent. Scientists from the various nations will cooperate in exploring the temperatures, winds and electrical properties of an atmosphere cut off from sunlight for many months. The thickness of the ice will be surveyed and examined for indications of increase or decrease of its volume over the years, to see if Antarctic climate is changing. The Aurora Australis will be photographed and compared with its Northern Hemisphere counterpart, the Aurora Borealis. Intensive measurements will be made of geomagnetism, cosmic rays, airglow, and the ionosphere in an attempt to throw light on the physics of the high atmosphere.