In 1948 the U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, made a regional gravity survey in northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas in connection with the studies of the deflection of the vertical. About 550 gravity stations were occupied with spacings of 5 to 10 miles in parts of 54 counties, and a Bouguer anomaly map, contoured at intervals of 5 milligals, was drawn. In southeastern Kansas there is a lack of correlation of regional gravity with known regional structural geology. The observed gravity anomalies are apparently caused principally by variations of density in the Precambrian basement and indicate a basement of complex nature, made up of rocks of contrasting properties, with a regional grain striking predominantly west or west-northwest. In northeastern Oklahoma the several observed regional gravity anomalies indicate different degrees of correlation of regional gravity with regional structural geology. In the Precambrian highland area in Osage, Pawnee, and Creek Counties, there is a lack of correlation, as the gravity anomaly is probably caused chiefly by density contrasts within the basement complex. The anomaly associated with the Hunton arch is probably caused partly by structural relief of the rocks of pre-Pennsylvanian age and partly by density contrasts within the basement, and thus indicates some correlation. The steep gravity gradients along the outer flanks of the Ozark uplift indicate good correlation with the subsurface geology. The great anomaly over the Arkansas basin, which indicates a close correlation, is probably caused largely--but perhaps not entirely--by downwarping of the basement and pre-Pennsylvanian rocks.