Abstract

A method of calculating the amplitudes of bodily waves in earthquakes is applied to a study of the amplitudes of longitudinal waves produced by an artificial explosion. Formulae are given for calculating the energy of the reflected longitudinal wave arriving at the surface. The percentage of energy reflected at a discontinuity increases rapidly after the angle of incidence exceeds the critical refraction angle. However, no corresponding large amplitudes are recorded by the instruments. Instead, the maximum amplitudes of reflected waves are found near the shot point. This is because the ground movement is due both to the arriving wave and to the wave reflected downward from the ground. The amplitude of this movement depends, besides, on the rate of change of the angle of incidence with distance. It is pointed out that the same methods can be applied to a dipping bed, and that the amplitudes of the reflected waves are in general slightly larger in the up-dip than in the down-dip direction.

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