Frederick J. Sawkins, Daryl A. Scherkenbach; High copper content of fluid inclusions in quartz from northern Sonora: Implications for ore-genesis theory. Geology ; 9 (1): 37–40. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1981)9<37:HCCOFI>2.0.CO;2
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Fluid inclusions in quartz associated with copper-and molybdenum-bearing breccia pipes in northern Sonora, Mexico, contain from 4,000 to 16,000 ppm copper and similar amounts of iron. These values suggest that the base-metal transporting capability of some postmagmatic fluids is considerable.
Metal-bearing hydrous fluids of magmatic origin may undergo sufficient dilution by nonmagmatic waters to lose their magmatic identity and still represent major metal-transporting agents. Thus, stable-isotope data that indicate the predominance of nonmagmatic water during the formation of an ore deposit may be misleading in terms of the true origin of the metals involved.