Ivan Barnes, George A. McCoy; Possible role of mantle-derived CO2 in causing two “phreatic” explosions in Alaska. Geology ; 7 (9): 434–435. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1979)7<434:PROMCI>2.0.CO;2
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Two “phreatic” maars in Alaska may have been created by the explosive release of carbon dioxide from a basaltic melt. Both the basalt of the maars and the observed CO2 (δ13C = −6.36‰) are inferred to have come from the mantle.
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