Richard T. Haworth, Jean-Pierre Lefort, Hugh G. Miller; Geophysical evidence for an east-dipping Appalachian subduction zone beneath Newfoundland. Geology ; 6 (9): 522–526. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1978)6<522:GEFAEA>2.0.CO;2
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Geophysical data from within and adjacent to Newfoundland indicate the existence of an undulating but regionally continuous layer of ultramafic rocks generally dipping to the southeast beneath the Avalon zone of Newfoundland. This is interpreted to indicate the southeastward subduction of an early Paleozoic oceanic crust. The ophiolites of western Newfoundland (those both detached and rooted), the granites of north-central Newfoundland, and the Gander ultramafic zone occupy positions that are unique in relation to the ultramafic layer. Northeast of Newfoundland and in New Brunswick, “incomplete” continental suturing has preserved geological zones not seen in Newfoundland.