Robert B. Scott, John Malpas, Peter A. Rona, Gleb Udintsev; Duration of hydrothermal activity at an oceanic spreading center, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (lat 26°N). Geology ; 4 (4): 233–236. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1976)4<233:DOHAAA>2.0.CO;2
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Hydrothermal manganese oxide coats talus on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at lat 26°N until spreading moves the rock past the thermally and structurally active rift-valley wall. Hydrothermal activity is replaced by hydrogenous ferromanganese oxide precipitation on ocean crust older than 0.7 m.y. on the ridge-crest highlands.