Edward L. Simpson, Hannah L. Hilbert-Wolf, Michael C. Wizevich, Sarah E. Tindall, Ben R. Fasinski, Lauren P. Storm, Mattathias D. Needle; Predatory digging behavior by dinosaurs. Geology ; 38 (8): 699–702. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/G31019.1
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Minimal direct evidence exists in the rock record of dinosaurs and mammals behaving as predators and prey, respectively. A newly discovered Late Cretaceous trace fossil association of digging traces of maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs and mammalian den complexes indicates a predator-prey relationship. Three distinct associated trace fossils occur within a floodplain siltstone-mudstone bed of the Upper Cretaceous Wahweap Formation in southern Utah, United States. One trace fossil morphology and its extramorphological variants record digging by a maniraptoran theropod dinosaur, possibly a dromeosaurid or troodontid. The other two are interpreted as mammalian den complexes. The proximal association of these trace fossils suggests that dinosaurs used excavation techniques to prey on mammals.