Neil R. Banerjee, Antonio Simonetti, Harald Furnes, Karlis Muehlenbachs, Hubert Staudigel, Larry Heaman, Martin J. Van Kranendonk; Direct dating of Archean microbial ichnofossils. Geology ; 35 (6): 487–490. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/G23534A.1
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Well-preserved Archean pillow lavas from the ca. 3.35 Ga Euro Basalt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, contain micron-sized tubular structures mineralized by titanite (CaTiSiO4) with residual organic carbon preserved along their margins. Direct U-Pb dating of titanite in the tubular structures demonstrates an Archean age. These tubular microstructures are identical to microbial ichnofossils in modern basalts, ophiolites, and greenstone belts, and are interpreted as a biogenic signature in these ancient rocks. Microbial colonization of basaltic glass thus appears to have been part of a deep subsurface biosphere established early in Earth's history.