Stefan Bernstein, Peter B. Kelemen, Karen Hanghøj; Consistent olivine Mg# in cratonic mantle reflects Archean mantle melting to the exhaustion of orthopyroxene. Geology ; 35 (5): 459–462. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/G23336A.1
Shallow (garnet-free), depleted cratonic mantle, occurring as xenoliths in kimberlites and alkaline basaltic lavas, has a high Mg# (100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe) > 92) and is poor in Al and Ca compared to off-cratonic mantle. Here we compile data for many suites of shallow cratonic mantle xenoliths worldwide, and demonstrate a remarkably small range in their olivine Mg#, with an average of ≈92.8. Via comparison with data for experimental melting of mantle peridotite compositions, we explain consistent olivine Mg# as the result of mantle melting and melt extraction to the point of orthopyroxene exhaustion, leaving a nearly monomineralic olivine residue.