Martin Bizzarro, Antonio Simonetti, Ross K. Stevenson, Jean David; Hf isotope evidence for a hidden mantle reservoir. Geology ; 30 (9): 771–774. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0771:HIEFAH>2.0.CO;2
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High-precision Hf isotopic analyses and U-Pb ages of carbonatites and kimberlites from Greenland and eastern North America, including Earth's oldest known carbonatite (3 Ga), indicate derivation from an enriched mantle source. This previously unidentified mantle reservoir—marked by an unradiogenic Hf isotopic composition and preserved in the deep mantle for at least 3 b.y.—may account for the mass imbalance in Earth's Hf-Nd budget. The Hf isotopic data presented here support a common mantle source region and genetic link between carbonatite and some oceanic- island basalt volcanoes.