Francesco Salvini, Fabrizio Storti, Ken McClay; Self-determining numerical modeling of compressional fault-bend folding. Geology ; 29 (9): 839–842. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0839:SDNMOC>2.0.CO;2
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We present the application of the HCA (hybrid cellular automata) numerical modeling technique to the evolution of compressional fault-bend anticlines involving layers that have competency contrasts and a mechanical stratigraphy. The new modeling results show that, for competent hanging-wall layers, (1) the fault style is not preserved in the overlying fold; (2) fold development is not self-similar, and rotational growth wedges develop in the forelimb when syntectonic sedimentation occurs; and (3) balanced fault-bend anticlines can develop for ramp cutoff angles as high as 60°. These results compare favorably with field examples and laboratory analogues and dramatically broaden the applicability of fault- bend folding to model the evolution of thrust-related anticlines.