C. Holmden, R. A. Creaser, K. Muehlenbachs, S. A. Leslie, S. M. Bergström; Isotopic evidence for geochemical decoupling between ancient epeiric seas and bordering oceans: Implications for secular curves. Geology ; 26 (6): 567–570. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0567:IEFGDB>2.3.CO;2
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Isotopic analysis of conodonts and their host limestones sampled between two regionally extensive, altered volcanic ash layers in eastern Laurentia shows that a 454 Ma epeiric sea maintained large lateral differences in Nd and C isotope compositions. This is consistent with inferred temperature-salinity–defined epicontinental water masses and restricted circulation between epicontinental and oceanic environments. Because the majority of old marine fossils and sedimentary rocks are known from epeiric seas, some isotope excursions in ancient marine strata may originate from expansion and contraction of geochemically distinct epicontinental water masses, rather than global-scale changes in the state of the earth-ocean system.