Cathy Busby, Douglas Smith, William Morris, Benjamin Fackler-Adams; Evolutionary model for convergent margins facing large ocean basins: Mesozoic Baja California, Mexico. Geology ; 26 (3): 227–230. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0227:EMFCMF>2.3.CO;2
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Mesozoic rocks of the Baja California Peninsula form a convergent-margin complex that is one of the best-preserved and longest-lived convergent-margin complexes in the world. It shows a three-phase evolutionary trend that we propose is typical of arc systems facing large ocean basins. The trend progresses from phase 1, highly extensional intraoceanic-arc systems, to phase 2, a mildly extensional fringing-arc system, to phase 3, a compressional continental-arc system. This trend is largely due to the progressively decreasing age of lithosphere that is subducted. The modern Earth is strongly biased toward long-lived arc-trench systems, which are compressional, and so evolutionary models for convergent margins must be constructed from well-preserved ancient examples like Baja California.