Bruce E. Nesbitt, Carl A. Mendoza, Derrill M. Kerrick; Surface fluid convection during Cordilleran extension and the generation of metamorphic CO2 contributions to Cenozoic atmospheres. Geology ; 23 (2): 99–101. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0099:SFCDCE>2.3.CO;2
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Modeling of hydrogeological regimes associated with crustal extension indicate that flux values for deeply convected meteoric water are on the order of 10−3 m3 ċ m−2 ċ yr−1. Calculated CO2 fluxes produced by infiltration-driven, metamorphic decarbonation reactions along the circulation path are 2.4 × 10−4 m3 ċ m−2 ċ yr−1. Appication of the model to Cenozoic extension in the North American Cordillera demonstrates that CO2 generated in this manner may have been a major contributor to elevated CO2 contents of Cenozoic atmospheres and the resulting global warming due to CO2 greenhouse effect.