An integrated set of seismic reflection and refraction data collected across the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, in 1990, has yielded a composite image of this Mesozoic and Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt that reveals duplexing to lower-crustal depths. Interpretations from this image are as follows. (1) Many terranes and subterranes that were amalgamated in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous extend no deeper than the upper crust (3–10 km). (2) In contrast, crustal duplexing, extending to nearly 30 km depth above a south-dipping basal decollement, has produced latest Cretaceous to Cenozoic antiforms, including the Doonerak antiform in the central Brooks Range and anticlinoria near the northern range front. (3) The duplexing occurs in basement rocks of the North Slope subterrane, which core the antiforms. (4) North-dipping structures in the middle crust of the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and southern Brooks Range may postdate Mesozoic terrane amalgamation and predate or coincide with the duplexing. (5) The thickest crust, 50 km, occurs beneath the north-central Brooks Range, north of the root zone of the basal decollement. The position of the thickest crust may indicate that either the duplexed crust above the decollement was thrust onto and depressed the plate beneath the North Slope or the protracted tectonic history of the Brooks Range has left structures not simply explainable in terms of a single collisional event.