Johan P. Erikson, James L. Pindell; Analysis of subsidence in northeastern Venezuela as a discriminator of tectonic models for northern South America. Geology ; 21 (10): 945–948. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1993)021<0945:AOSINV>2.3.CO;2
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Subsidence analysis of northeastern Venezuela's exposed, parautochthonous Lower Cretaceous-Miocene sedimentary section reveals an Atlantic-type passive-margin subsidence history for the entire Cretaceous-middle Eocene interval; Oligocene-Miocene subsidence was rapid and great and was caused by foredeep formation and emplacement of the fold-and-thrust belt that now exposes the passive-margin sedimentary section. Our analyses support tectonic models of South America's northern margin which propose Cenozoic eastward migration of a foredeep along northern South America's late Mesozoic passive margin. The calculated subsidence is inconsistent with tectonic models that propose middle or Late Cretaceous subduction or obduction.