John McCord, Marshall Reiter, Fred Phillips; Heat-flow data suggest large ground-water fluxes through Fruitland coals of the northern San Juan basin, Colorado-New Mexico. Geology ; 20 (5): 419–422. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0419:HFDSLG>2.3.CO;2
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Temperature logs and heat-flow data from wells in the northern San Juan basin, Colorado-New Mexico, suggest that coals of the Fruitland Formation are an aquifer with appreciable horizontal ground-water movement. Calculated hydraulic conductivities, based on ground water flow rates estimated from heat-flow data, are several orders of magnitude greater than hydraulic conductivities measured in laboratory or pumping tests. Fractures and other preferential pathways probably create high regional hydraulic conductivity that allows significant heat advection.