A. Reay, J. M. Rooke, R. C. Wallace, P. Whelan; Lavas from Niuafo'ou Island, Tonga, Resemble Ocean–Floor Basalts. Geology ; 2 (12): 605–606. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1974)2<605:LFNITR>2.0.CO;2
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Major element, trace element, and mineral analyses of rocks from the island of Niuafo'ou in the western Pacific Ocean show that Niuafo'ou rocks have a marked similarity to ocean-floor basalt, especially with basalt of relatively high FeO*/MgO ratios.