Olgeir Sigmarsson, Christophe Hémond, Michel Condomines, Serge Fourcade, Niels Oskarsson; Origin of silicic magma in Iceland revealed by Th isotopes. Geology ; 19 (6): 621–624. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0621:OOSMII>2.3.CO;2
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Th, Sr, Nd, and O isotopes have been determined in a suite of volcanic rocks from Hekla and in a few samples from Askja and Krafla volcanic centers in Iceland. Although 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios are nearly the same for all compositions at Hekla, the 230Th/232Th) ratios differ and thus clearly show that the silicic rocks cannot be derived from fractional crystallization of a more primitive magma. Similar results are obtained for the Krafla and Askja volcanic centers, where the δ18O values are much lower in the silicic magma than in the mafic magma. These data suggest that large volumes of silicic rocks in central volcanoes of the neovolcanic zones in Iceland are produced by partial melting of the underlying crust.