Peter W. Birkeland, Margaret E. Berry, David K. Swanson; Use of soil catena field data for estimating relative ages of moraines. Geology ; 19 (3): 281–283. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0281:UOSCFD>2.3.CO;2
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Soils at the crests of moraines are commonly used to estimate the relative ages of moraines. However, for various pedologic and geo-morphic reasons, soil development at crest sites may not truly reflect the time since moraine formation; for example, some crest soils on moraines of greatly different age are similar in morphology and development. Soil catena data for soils at several sites aligned downslope from the crest can greatly improve on the usefulness of soil data for estimating moraine ages. For this purpose we use the weighted mean catena profile development index, which condenses field data for all of the soils in each catena into a single value.