A. Nicolas, A. Hirn, R. Nicolich, R. Polino; Lithospheric wedging in the western Alps inferred from the ECORS-CROP traverse. Geology ; 18 (7): 587–590. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1990)018<0587:LWITWA>2.3.CO;2
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The ECORS-CROP traverse integrates vertical and wide-angle seismic-reflection, gravity, and magnetic studies along a 190 km profile across the western Alps. The combination of geophysical and geologic data constrains the deep structure along the traverse. Although alternative models are not excluded, the model that best fits the data of crustal accretion implies that, after the consumption of the Piemontese ocean, continental collision proceeded by lithospheric wedging of the subducting European continental foreland. In the Internal zones, further shortening may have been achieved by an unknown amount of penetrative deformation and by back thrusting.