A new geobarometer based on the Al content of igneous hornblendes in equilibrium with melt, fluid, biotite, quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, sphene, and magnetite or ilmenite has been calibrated experimentally. The calibration was performed by equilibrating the required phase assemblage over the pressure range 2-8 kbar at 740-780 °C, and then analyzing euhedral hornblendes in equilibrium with glass (melt). Experiments were performed on natural samples of both volcanic and plutonic rocks. Earlier empirical calibrations of this geobarometer relied on analyzing natural hornblendes from plutons with the required phase assemblage and inferring pressure from nearby metamorphic country rocks. The experimental calibration differs from the empirical calibrations, especially above 5 kbar, and shows that the Al content of hornblendes in equilibrium with the required phase assemblage is greater for a given total pressure than previously thought. The geobarometer's uncertainty is dramatically reduced. The derived equation is P (±0.5 kbar) = 3 -3.46 (±0.24) + 4.23 (±0.13) (AlT). The geobarometer is applied to post-Bishop Tuff volcanic rocks from Long Valley caldera, California, and reveals that most rhyodacites in this complex erupted from depths of about 6 km. These eruptions occurred over 500 000 yr, suggesting that the rhyodacitic magma reservoir beneath Long Valley had reached a steady P (depth)-T state.

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