Ellen A. Cowan, Ross D. Powell, Norman D. Smith; Rainstorm-induced event sedimentation at the tidewater front of a temperate glacier. Geology ; 16 (5): 409–412. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1988)016<0409:RIESAT>2.3.CO;2
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Runoff from a late summer storm drained rapidly to a subglacial stream of McBride Glacier, southeast Alaska. The stream transported large volumes of sediment that discharged from the glacier's tidewater front directly into fjord water at 40 m depth. Measurements of salinity, temperature, and suspended-sediment concentration indicate that the sediment was transported by interflows within brackish fjord water. Sedimentation rates were exceptionally high (up to five times normal). Laminated fine sand accumulated in proximal sediment traps, and silty mud accumulated in distal traps. The low frequency of large storms late in the melt season indicates that the sedimentary products would be rare but significant marker horizons in temperate glaciomarine sequences.