L André, J. Hertogen, S. Deutsch; Ordovician–Silurian magmatic provinces in Belgium and the Caledonian orogeny in middle Europe. Geology ; 14 (10): 879–882. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1986)14<879:OMPIBA>2.0.CO;2
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Trace-element and Nd-isotope studies reveal that the Caledonian basic to intermediate igneous rocks of the Brabant and Ardennes massifs (Belgium) belong to two distinct calc-alkaline and tholeiitic series. The nature and spatial distribution of the volcanics indicate formation in an active continental margin at the northern edge of the Armorica plate. The magmatism most likely marks subduction processes related to closure of a medio-European ocean separating Armorica from Baltica.