M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. Wilde, D. Corrigan, A. T. Dengler, William R. Normark; Very recent analogs of volcanogenic Archean sequences. Geology ; 14 (1): 48–51. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1986)14<48:VRAOVA>2.0.CO;2
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Sediment samples from the top of Loihi seamount, southeast of the island of Hawaii, were examined by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence. The <0.062-mm fraction is reddish x-amorphous iron hydroxide with a low rare-earth-element content similar to chondrite. The >0.062-mm fraction is sand-size grit consisting of olivine, opaque magnetic material, and basaltic glass. The lack of alteration products, such as palagonite or smectite, and the absence of seawater rare-earth-element signature for the amorphous iron hydroxide indicate minimal interaction with seawater. The elemental composition (including the rare-elements) suggests that the combination of the grit and amorphous iron hydroxide is a sedimentary analog of early Archean amphibolite-iron oxide fades.