Peter W. Lipman, David A. Sawyer; Mesozoic ash-flow caldera fragments in southeastern Arizona and their relation to porphyry copper deposits. Geology ; 13 (9): 652–656. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1985)13<652:MACFIS>2.0.CO;2
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Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous volcanic and associated granitic rocks in southeast Arizona are remnants of large composite silicic volcanic fields, characterized by voluminous ash-flow tuffs and associated calderas. Presence of 10–15 large caldera fragments is inferred primarily from (1) ash-flow deposits more than 1 km thick, having features of intracaldera ponding; (2) “exotic-block” breccias within a tuff matrix, interpreted as caldera-collapse megabreccias; and (3) local granitic intrusions along arcuate structural boundaries of the thick volcanic sequences. Several porphyry copper deposits are associated with late granitic intrusions within the calderas or along their margins.